Romans Dictionary of Terms

This book of Romans Dictionary lists words used in Romans, provides a brief definition, and references used in the Bible.

 

Apostle – Someone sent with a special message or commission. Jesus is called the apostle and high Priest of our confession in Hebrews 3:1. (1:1; 11:13)
Baptize – The application of water as a right of purification or initiation. (6:3)
Barbarians – It was originally the Greek epithet for a people speaking any other than the Greek language. It means basically “all people” in Romans. (1:14)
Blasphemy – Speaking evil of God or denying Him some good that we should attribute to Him. (2:24) See John 10:33; Rev. 2:9
Bond Servant – Someone who willingly chose to be a slave of a master. (1:1) See Phil. 1:1
Call(ed) – Called (elected, predestined) to be saved by God. (1:6; 8:30; 9:24) See Eph. 1:4; 2 Thess. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:9
Called, The – The chosen for salvation. (1:6; 8:28) See 1 Cor. 1:24; Jude 1
Circumcision – In the OT, it was the putting off of a part of the flesh as a symbol of the covenant relationship of God’s people with YHWH. Christian circumcision is “putting off” not a part but an entire “body of the flesh.” (2:25-28; 3:1, 30; 4:9-12; 15:8). It is a covenant sign related to and possibly replacing baptism (See, Col. 2:11-12; 1 Cor. 10:1-4).
Condemnation – Declaring an evil doer to be guilty. The punishment inflicted. The testimony by the good against evil-doers. (3:8; 5:16, 18; 8:1; 13:2) See 1 Tim. 3:6; Jude 4
Covenant – A legal contract between two or more parties with stipulations and penalties. (9:4; 11:27) See 1 Cor. 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6, 14; Gal. 3:15; 4:24; Heb. 7:22; 8:6-13
Elect – Those chosen by God for eternal salvation. (8:33) See Matt. 22:14; 24:22; Col. 3:12; 1 Tim. 5:21; 1 Pet. 1:1
Firstborn – The first of the parent’s offspring. It stands figuratively for that which is most excellent. The firstborn male of the family carried certain familial rites. It also refers to Christ being the first raised from the dead. (8:29) See Luke 2:7; Col. 1:15, 18; Heb. 1:6; 12:23
Fool – Hater of God. One who is morally weak misuses what God has given him for selfish purposes. (1:14, 21, 22; 2:20; 10:19) See Luke 24:25; Gal. 3:1; 1 Tim. 6:9; Titus 3:3
Foreknow – In the NT, it does not mean merely “to know beforehand,” but also to cause to be (8:29) and also to be known in a salvific manner. For this, see John 10:27; Matt. 7:22-23; 1 Pet. 1:2, 20; Gen. 18:19; Ex. 33:12; Is. 43:1.
Gentile – Those nations other than Israel. (1:5; 2:9, 10; 11:11-13) See Matt. 6:32; Mark 10:33; Acts 4:25; 15:3;
Gospel – The death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus for the sins of the world (1:9, 15, 16; 2:16; 11:28; 15:19; 16:25). See also 1 Cor. 15:1-4
Grace – Unmerited favor. God’s Riches At Christ’s E Favor bestowed on a person who does not deserve it (3:24; 4:16; 5:2; 11:5; 12:3, 6; 16:20, 24). See Acts 4:33; 18:27; 1 Cor. 15:10; 2 Cor. 9:14; Eph. 2:5
Greek – An inhabitant of Greece. (1:16; 10:12) See John 7:35; Acts 14:1; 1 Cor. 1:22
Heaven – In Jewish cosmology, there were three heavens. The first heaven was the air; the second was the abode of the stars, planets, and sun. The third was the dwelling place of God. (1:18; 10:6). See Acts 1:11; 1 Cor. 8:5; 2 Cor. 5:2
Impute – To ascribe or account to another. (5:13) See Philem 18;
Invisible attributes – of God, Omniscience, Omnipresence, Omnipotence (1:20)
Judgment – A legal decision. (2:2, 3; 5:16, 18) See Matt. 23:14; John 9:39; James 3:1
Judgment Seat – The place of Judgment. Also, the final seat of Judgment of the wicked and the righteous. (14:10) See Matt. 27:19; John 19:13; Acts 18:12, 16; 2 Cor. 5:10
Justify, Justification – The declaration of righteousness. (4:25; 5:1, 16, 18) See Rom. 3:28; Gal. 2:16; 1 Cor. 6:11; Gal. 3:11; Titus 3:7
Law – Three main parts: Priestly – done away with and fulfilled in Christ; Judicial – under a theocratic system which is no longer in effect; Moral – The do’s and don’t’s of proper behavior. The Moral Law is a manifestation of the character of God. It is wrong to lie because it is against God’s character to lie. (2:12-15; 3:20; 4:15; 5:13; 6:14; 7:1; 8:2; 9:31; 10:4; 13:8, 10). See Matt. 5:17; Luke 2:22; John 1:17; Gal. 2:16; 1 Tim. 1:8-9
Law and Prophets – A phrase used in the NT as a means of dividing the OT. The Law was the first five books. The Prophets were all the rest. (3:21) See Matt. 7:12; 22:40; Luke 16:16
Mercy – Justice not met. Showing kindness instead of Judgment. (9:15, 16, 18; 11:30, 31, 32; 15:9) See Mat. 5:7; 1 Cor. 7:25; Phil. 2:27; 1 Tim. 1:13
Oracles – The communications and proclamations of God. (3:2) See Acts 7:38; Heb. 5:12; 1 Pet. 4:11
Predestine – to destine or decree beforehand. (8:29, 30) See Acts 4:28; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:5, 11
Prophet – Someone who speaks to men a message from God. (1:2; 3:21; 11:3; 16:26) See Matt. 1:22; Mark 1:2; Luke 1:70; John 1:21; Acts 3:22; Heb. 1:1; 11:32
Propitiation – The act/sacrifice that turns away wrath. (3:25) See 1 John 2:2; 4:10
Reconcile – To bring into harmony. To remove disagreement or enmity between two or more parties. (5:10; 11:15) See 1 Cor. 7:11; 2 Cor. 5:18-20
Redemption – The act of buying back. To set free by a ransom (3:24; 8:23) See Luke 21:28; Eph. 1:7; 4:30; Col. 1:14; Heb. 9:15; 11:35
Repentance – Turning from sin. (2:4) See Matt. 3:8; Luke 3:3; Acts 5:31; 2 Cor. 7:9; 2 Tim. 2:25; Heb. 6:1; 2 Pet. 3:9
Resurrection – Raising from the dead. (1:4; 6:5) See Matt. 22:23; Acts 1:22; 1 Cor. 15:12-13; Phil. 3:10; Heb. 6:2; 1 Pet. 1:3; Rev. 20:5-6
Righteousness – Moral excellence according to the Law. Uprightness. (1:17; 2:26; 3:5; 4:13; 5:17; 14:17) Matt. 3:15; John 16:8; 1 Cor. 1:30; Gal. 2:21; Phil. 1:11; Titus 3:5
Salvation – Deliverance from the Judgment of God that ends in hell. (1:16; 10:10; 11:11; 13:11) See Acts 4:12; 2 Cor. 1:6; Eph. 1:13; Phil. 1:28; 2 Thess. 2:13
Scriptures – The Inspired Word of God. (1:2; 15:4; 16:26) See Matt. 21:42; Luke 4:21; John 10:35; Acts 1:16; 1 Cor. 15:1-4; Gal. 3:8; 1 Tim. 5:18
Son of God – Reference to Jesus. (1:4; 8:3) Also used of Jesus elsewhere (Matt. 4:3; 8:29; 26:63; 27:40; Mark 1:1; Luke 1:35; John 1:49; 3:18) People are called Sons of God (Matt. 5:9; Luke 3:38; Rom. 8:14; Gal. 3:26). Angels are called Sons of God (Gen. 6:4; Job 1:6; 2:1)
Spiritual gift – An ability given to help develop the church. (1:11) See 1 Cor. 12:1; 14:1, 12; 1 Tim. 4:14
Transgression – Breaking of the Law of God. An offense against someone. (4:25; 5:15, 17, 18; 11:11, 12) See Matt. 6:14; Mark 11:25; Eph. 2:5; Col. 2:13
Type – A representation or symbol of something else. An example or model. (5:14) See Phil. 3:17; 2 Thess. 3:9
Unclean – Unholy. Morally impure. Dirty. Unclean (14:14) See Mark 7:2; Acts 10:14; 11:8; Heb. 10:29; Rev. 21:27
Works – Things done by a person or God. (3:27; 4:2; 9:11: 11:16; 13:12) See Matt. 5:16; John 3:19; John 4:34; 5:36; 6:29
Wrath – God’s rightful execution of His Judgment upon sinners. (1:18; 2:5; 4:15; 5:9; 9:22; 13:4, 5) See Matt. 3:7; John 3:36; Eph. 2:3; Col. 3:6; 1 Thess. 1:10; Rev. 6:16-17; 11:18

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