Bible Study: Romans 1

Romans Chapter 1 Outline for Bible study.  Verses 1-3.  This outline will increase as the study progresses.

Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,


Παῦλος Paúlos, occurs 158 times in the N.T.
The change of the name was significant since it signified a change in calling.

Saul to Paul (Acts 9:3–6)
Abram to Abraham (Gen. 17:5)
Jacob to Israel (Gen. 32:28)
From Simon to Peter (John 1:42 16:17-18)

Bond servant

δοῦλος doúlos, occurs 126 times in the N.T. Translated as slaves most of the time.
Someone given completely over to the service of another.

Christ Jesus


Χριστός Christós, occurs 531 times in the N.T. In the NASB, it is translated as Messiah (Matt. 1:1, 16-17; 2:4), Lord (1 Cor. 10:9), and Christ (Mark 1:1; Acts 2:31; 1 Cor. 1:1, etc.)
Generally, it means anointed one and messiah.

Christ Jesus or Jesus Christ

“Christ Jesus” (Χριστός Ἰησοῦς, Xristos Iasous) occurs 91 times in the N.T. “Jesus Christ” (Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, Iasous Xristos) occurs 135 Times.
I am not aware of the significance of the difference.


The glorious manifestation of Christ Jesus to Paul who called him to follow Him.
Acts 9:3–6, “As he was traveling, it happened that he was approaching Damascus, and suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him; 4 and he fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?’ 5 And he said, ‘Who are You, Lord?’ And He said, ‘I am Jesus whom you are persecuting, 6 but get up and enter the city, and it will be told you what you must do.’
Election is the sovereign act of God where, from before the foundation of the world, he chose those whom he would save (Eph. 1:4). This election to salvation is not conditioned upon any foreseen faith (Rom. 9:16) or good works of any individual (Rom. 9:11; 2 Tim. 1:9). The election is based completely on God’s sovereign choice according to the kind intention of his will (Eph. 1:11), the criteria, of which, he has not revealed to us. God elected people because he decided to bestow his love upon them (John 3:16; Eph. 2:4) based solely on his sovereign grace (Gal. 1:15) and for his glory (Isa. 43:7).


ἀπόστολος apóstolos, occurs 79 times in the N.T.
Apostles established churches (Rom. 15:17-20), exposed error (Gal. 1:6-9), and defended the truth of the gospel (Phil. 1:7, 17). Some were empowered by the Holy Spirit to perform miracles (Matt. 10:1, 8), and they were to preach the gospel (Matt. 28:19, 20).
Seven kinds of apostles in the New Testament

The 12 Apostles: There are apostles who were only among the 12: Simon Peter, Andrew, James the son of Zebedee, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot who was replaced by Mathias (Acts 1:26). They performed miracles. Some wrote scripture. (Acts 1:21-22).
Paul: Paul was an apostle (unique?) specifically commissioned by Christ. He performed miracles and wrote scripture. (Acts 14:14; 1 Cor. 9:1;  1:1)
Barnabas is an apostle. He performed no miracles and wrote no scripture. (Acts 14:14, 8-18)
Jesus is called an apostle. He performed miracles ( 3:1)
Sent ones: There are apostles in the sense of simply being sent. They are messengers. They perform no miracles. (2 Cor. 8:23;  2:25; John 20:21)
Anyone involved: It could be possible that anyone who was involved in Christ’s ministry before his death and saw him after his resurrection could be referred to as apostles. (Acts 1:21-22)
False apostles. (2 Cor. 11:13;  2:2)

Set Apart

ἀφορίζω, aphorízō, Occurs 10 Times in the N.T. In the NASB, it is rendered as take, separate, set, hold. (Matt. 13:49; 25:32; Luke 6:22; Acts 13:2; 19:9; Rom. 1:1; 2 Cor. 6:17; Gal. 1:15; 2:12)


εὐαγγέλιον, euaggélion. Occurs 76 times in the N.T.
Generally, it means “good news.”


Θεός Theós. Occurs 1310 times in the N.T.
God is the one who called him. Essentially, got elected him for this purpose which is why it says he was set apart for the gospel.  Paul has a purpose from God.
Gal. 1:15, “But when He who had set me apart, even from my mother’s womb, and called me through His grace, was pleased 16 to reveal His Son in me, that I might preach Him among the Gentiles, I did not immediately consult with flesh and blood.”

which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures,

God promised the gospel in the prophets of the Old Testament

Gen. 3:15, “And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel.”
Gen. 12:3, “And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you, all the families of the earth will be blessed.”

Galatians 3:8, “The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, ‘All the nations will be blessed in you.’”

Deut. 18:18, “I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.”
Isaiah 7:14, “Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel.”
Isaiah 9:6, “For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us, and the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.”
Isaiah 53:4–6, “Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. 5 But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. 6 All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him.”

concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh,

His Son

The Son of God and Eternal Sonship

The doctrine of the sonship of Jesus is the teaching that the second person of the Trinity, the Word (John 1:1,14), has always existed in relationship to the Father by being the Son.
Psalm 2:7, “I will surely tell of the decree of the Lord: He said to Me, ‘You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.”
Prov. 30:4, “Who has ascended into heaven and descended? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has wrapped the waters in His garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is His name or His son’s name? Surely you know!”
Eph. 1:4, “just as He [the Father] chose us [election] in Him [the Son] before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him…”

Being “in Christ” see Rom. 6:6, 8; 1 Cor. 15:22.

Descendent of David

2 Sam. 7:12, “When your [David] days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom.”
Zech. 12:10, “I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn.”
Matt. 1:1, “The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham.”

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