Table comparison of the Father and Jesus, the Son

The following is an extensive table comparison of the Father and Jesus, the Son, as found in the Bible. I did this study to see what new things I might learn and also to provide documentation that demonstrates the distinction between them. This is important because, in Oneness Pentecostal theology, the Father and the Son are the same person. Yet, we find the characteristics of personhood exhibited by both of them (the Holy Spirit, too), which demonstrates that they are not the same person.

Definition of person

“A person is a set of characteristics that encompass identity, self-awareness, awareness of others, emotions, self-determination, and a rational nature. Personhood is the condition shared by God, angels, and people that involves the ability to think, speak, be self-aware, aware of others, can love, be rational, etc. Both God and angels are non-corporeal yet exhibit the characteristics of personhood. Therefore, the word ‘person’ deals with that set of characteristics and is not restricted to just human beings in physical form.” (https://carm.org/dictionary/person)

Regarding the characteristics of personhood, one person interacts with another person. One person speaks to another person, speaks about him, sends him or her, asks of him or her, sits with one another. Persons know each other, love each other, etc. This is how we understand and determine the distinction of persons. All of these characteristics occur between the Father and the Son.

One person speaks another person. The Son speaks to the Father (John 17:1-26).
One person speaks about another person. The Father speaks about the Son (Matt. 3:17; Heb. 1:5).
One person sends another person. The Father sent the son (Matt. 10:40; John 5:23).
One person asks of another person. Jesus asked of the Father (John 14:16; Luke 23:34).
One person sits next to another person. Jesus sits next to the Father’s throne (Rev. 3:21).
One person knows another person. Fhe Father and the Son know each other (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 10:15).
One person loves another person. The Father loves Jesus (John 3:35).

The following outline and table are from the extensive research I did on scriptures that deal with the Father and the Son. I dealt with 128 verses and did my best to analyze them by categorizing them. I don’t claim to have done it perfectly, but at least I attempted to let the Scriptures speak and learn from them.

 

Outline Results from the Table

Action performed by the Father to the Son, Jesus (27 verses)

The Father calls the Son, God (Heb. 1:8)
The Father gave all judgment to the Son (John 5:22)
The Father gave life to the Son (John 5:26)
The Father gives the elect to the Son (John 6:37)
The Father gives the Helper (John 14:16)
The Father glorifies Jesus (John 8:54)
The Father hands all things to Jesus (Matt. 11:27)
The Father has something for Jesus to do (John 18:11)
The Father hears Jesus (John 11:41)
The Father loves Jesus (John 3:35)
The Father raised Jesus from the dead (Gal. 1:1)
The Father sanctifies the Son, Jesus (John 10:36)
The Father sent the Son (Matt. 10:40; John 5:23; 6:38-39; 8:42; 12:44-45, 49; 13:20; 14:24; 17:3; 20:21; Gal. 4:6; 1 John 4:14; Rev. 1:1)
The Father set His seal on Jesus. (John 6:27)
The Father speaks about the Son (Matt. 3:17; Heb. 1:5)
The Father taught Jesus (John 8:28)
The Father tells Jesus what to speak (John 12:50)
The Father’s will is that those who believe in Jesus will have eternal life (John 6:40)

Action performed by the Son to the Father (34 verses)

Jesus alone has seen the Father (John 6:46)
Jesus ascends to the Father (John 20:17)
Jesus asks the Father to give the Helper (John 14:16)
Jesus came from the Father (John 8:42; 16:28)
Jesus came in the Father’s name (John 5:43)
Jesus does works in the Father’s name (John 10:25, 36)
Jesus had glory with the Father before creation (John 17:5)
Jesus honors the Father (John 8:49)
Jesus is the only mediator to God (1 Tim. 2:5)
Jesus is the exact representation of God (Heb. 1:3)
Jesus manifested the Father’s name (John 17:6)
Jesus prays to the Father (Matt. 11:25; Luke 22:42; 23:34; 46; John 12:27–28; 17:1-5)
Jesus praises the Father (Matt. 11:25)
Jesus proceeds from the Father (John 8:42)
Jesus recognizes the identical nature of the Father and Him (John 10:30)
Jesus reveals the Father (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22)
Jesus sits with the Father (Rev. 3:21)
Jesus will depart and go to the Father (John 13:1; 14:28)
Jesus will return to the Father (John 13:3)
Jesus’ works are from the Father (John 10:32)

Action performed by God to the Son (6 verses)

God appointed Jesus as heir (Heb. 1:2)
God has spoken in the Son (Heb. 1:2)
God made Jesus both Lord and Christ (Acts 2:36)
God raised up Jesus (Acts 5:30; 6:4)
God tells the angels to worship Jesus, the firstborn (Heb. 1:6)

Positional Relationship (9 verses)

Jesus descended from heaven and spoke to the Father who was in heaven (John 6:38; 17:1-5)
Jesus is presently at the right hand of God (Acts 7:56; Heb. 1:3)
Jesus is the begotten from the Father (Heb. 1:5)

Reciprocity between the Father and the Son (5 verses)

The Father and the Son know each other (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 10:15)
The Father is in Jesus, and Jesus is in the Father (John 14:10-11)

Showing distinction and relationship (50 verses)

Believe in God and Jesus (John 14:1)
Blessed by the Father and Jesus (2 Cor. 1:3)
Confess Jesus is Lord to the glory of the Father (Phil. 2:11)
Equality of grace between Father and Son (Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:2; Gal. 1:3; Phil. 1:2; Col. 1:2; 2 Thess. 1:2; 2 Thess. 1:2; 1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2, 4; Titus 1:4; Philm 3; 2 John 3)
Equality of peace between Father and Son (Eph. 1:2; Col. 1:2; 2 Thess. 1:2; 1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2, 4; Titus 1:4; Philm 3; 2 John 3)
Giving thanks through Jesus to God (Eph. 5:20)
Glory for God through Jesus (Rom. 16:27)
God and Father of the Lord Jesus (2 Cor. 11:31; 1 Pet. 1:3)
God and the Son (Heb. 1:2)
God the Father and Jesus the Lord (1 Thess. 3:11, 13; 2 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 2:16; Titus 1:4;)
Jesus came in the Father’s name (John 5:43)
Jesus can only do what He sees the Father do (John 5:19)
Jesus is presently in the presence of the Father (1 Thess. 1:3)
Jesus recognizes the identical nature of the Father and Him (John 10:30)
One God the Father and one Lord Jesus (1 Cor. 8:6)
The Father alone knows the day of Jesus’ return (Matt. 24:36; Mark 13:32)
The Father reveals the truth of Jesus to Simon (Matt. 16:17)
The Father and the Son know each other (Luke 10:22)
The Father is the God of Jesus (Eph. 1:17)
The Father of Jesus (Rom. 6:4; 15:6; Col. 1:3)
To know Jesus is to know the Father (John 14:7)

Relationship of those performing an action (99 verses)

The action of one on another (Matt. 10:40; 11:27; 16:17; John 5:22; 6:32; John 10:15; 10:32, 36; 12:44-45, 49; Gal. 1:1; Heb. 1:2)
The action of one toward another (Matt. 3:17; 11:25; Luke 2:49; 23:46; John 6:27, 37, 46; 12:27–28; 13:3; 14:10-11, 16; 18:11; 17:6; Acts 2:36; 1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 1:82 Pet. 1:17)
The action of one from another (John 10:32, 36; 11:41)
The action of one in relation to another (Matt. 24:36; John 5:19; 10:30; 13:1, 3; Heb. 1:3; 5; 1 John 2:1; Rev. 3:21)
The action of one with another (John 14:23)
The action of one through another (Heb. 1:2)
No distinction of action between the Father and the Son (Isaiah 9:6; Matt. 28:19; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; John 5:23, 43; 6:40; 10:25; 14:1, 6, 7, 9, 21; Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:3; 1 Cor. 8:6; 2 Cor. 1:2, 3; 2 Cor. 11:31; 13:14; Gal. 1:1, 3; Eph. 1:2, 3; 1:17; 5:20; 6:23; Phil. 1:2; 2:11; Col. 1:2, 3; 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:1, 3; 3:11, 13; 2 Thess. 1:1, 2; 2 Thess. 2:16; 1 Tim. 1:2; 6:16; 2 Tim. 1:2; Titus 1:4; Philm 3; 1 Pet. 1:3; 1 John 1:3; 2:22, 23, 24; 5:1; 2 John 3; 2 John 9; Jude 1)

The distinction of location and will (5 verses)

Separate locations: Jesus on earth and the Father in Heaven (Matt. 3:17; 16:17; 2 Pet. 1:17)
Separate thrones in heaven of the Father and the Son (Rev. 3:21)
Separate wills (Luke 22:42)

Category

Declarative: Declaring truth (Matt. 3:17; Luke 10:22; 23:46; John 4:21; 5:232 Pet. 1:17)
Informative: Revealing truth (Isaiah 9:6; Matt. 10:40; 11:25, 27; Mark 8:38; 13:32; Luke 2:49; John 5:19, 20, 21)
Instructive: How to do something (Matt. 28:19)
Interrogative: One asking another (Luke 22:42)

The distinction of the action by or toward different subjects (30 verses)

Jesus and the Father together at the same time (Isaiah 9:6; Matt. 3:17; 11:25, 27; 16:17; 24:36; Mark 13:32; 2 Pet. 1:17)
Jesus prays to the Father (Matt. 11:25; Luke 22:42; 23:34, 46; John 6:37; 12:44; 13:1)
Jesus asks of the Father (Luke 23:34)
Jesus has a different will than the Father (Luke 22:42)
Jesus sees what the Father does (John 5:19)
Jesus departed to go back to the Father (John 13:1, 3)
Paul sent from both Jesus and the Father (Gal. 1:1)
The Father and the Son know each other (Luke 10:22)
The Father sent the Son (Matt. 10:40; John 5:23; 6:38-39; 8:42; 12:44-45, 49; 13:20)
Some don’t know Jesus or the Father (John 8:19)

The implication of the number of persons

One person – 2 verses (Isaiah 9:6; John 14:9) (See comment on John 14:9 below)
Two persons – 93 verses  (Matt. 3:17; 10:40; 11:25, 27; 16:17; 24:36; Mark 8:38; Luke 2:49; 9:26; Luke 10:22; 22:42; 23:34, 36; John 3:35; 4:21; 5:19, 20; John 5:22, 23, 26; 43; 6:27, 38-39, 40; 8:19, 42, 54; 10:15, 32, 36; 11:41; 12:27–28; 12:44-45, 49, 50; 13:1, 3, 20, 14:1, 6, 7; 14:9, 10-11, 23, 24; 28; 16:28; 17:5, 6; 18:11; 20:17; Acts 5:30; 7:56; Rom. 1:7; 6:4; 15:6; 16:27; 1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:3; 11:31; Gal. 1:1, 3; Eph. 1:2; 5:20; Col. 1:3; 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:1, 3; 3:11, 13; 2 Thess. 1:1-2; 1 Tim. 6:16; Heb. 1:2, 3, 5, 6, 8; 2 Pet. 1:17; 1 John 2:1, 22, 23; 4:14; 5:1; 2 John 3, 9; Jude 1; Rev. 1:1; 3:21)
Three persons implied – 3 verses  (Matt.28:19; John 14:16; 2 Cor. 13:14)

Non-Specific (22 verses)

Access to the Father, only through Jesus (John 14:6)
Affirming the Father and the Son (1 John 2:23)
Baptize in the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19)
Blessed by God the Father and the Lord Jesus (Eph. 1:3)
Denying the Father and Son (1 John 2:22)
Do things in the name of Jesus to the Father (Col. 3:17)
He who abides in the teaching of Christ, has the Father (2 John 9)
Jesus returns in the glory of the Father (Luke 9:26)
Our advocate with the Father, is Jesus (1 John 2:1)
Our fellowship is with the Father and the Son (1 John 1:3)
Our fellowship in the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit (2 Cor. 13:14)
Return of Christ in the glory of the Father (Mark 8:38)
The one and only God (John 5:44)
The presence of both God and Jesus (1 Tim. 6:16)
Salutation to the Church in the Father and Jesus (1 Thess. 1:1)
Same honor to Jesus and the Father (John 5:23)
The Father and the Son (1 John 5:1; Jude 1)
The Father and the Son give life (John 5:21)
The Father and Jesus (John 14:21)
We abide in the Father and the Son (1 John 2:24)
Worship of the Father (John 4:21)

Monotheism Support (4 verses)

John 5:44, “How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and you do not seek the glory that is from the only God?”
1 Corinthians 8:6, “yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.”
Ephesians 4:6, “one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.”
1 Timothy 2:5, “For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,”

Trinitarian Support (4 verses)

John 14:16, “I [Jesus] will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper [the Holy Spirit], that He may be with you forever.”
2 Cor. 13:14, “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with you all.”
Gal. 4:6, “Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!”
1 Pet. 1:2, “according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure.”

 

 

Table comparison of the Father and Jesus, the Son

Address
Verse
Action
The distinction of action between Father and Son
Object/
Subject

Persons

Isaiah 9:6
“For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us. And the government will rest on His shoulders. And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.”
Jesus shall be called a “multiple name”
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
One Person

Two persons

There is no place in the New Testament where Jesus is called “wonderful counselor,” “mighty God,” “Eternal Father,” or “Prince of peace.” Therefore, we cannot say that this prophecy is to be take as Jesus being the Father.  Why do the Oneness extract “Eternal Father” and apply only that title to Christ and then say He is the same person as the Father?  They do this because of their presuppositions. Instead, “name” designates the characteristics of the child to be born. In the context of the Jews, God is mentioned as a Father to Israel (Exo. 4:22; Deut. 32:6; Isa. 63:16; Jer. 3:19). So, the prophecy of Jesus is relating His arrival with the authority and power of God, who is a Father to Israel. Furthermore, Jesus is the exact representation of the nature of God the Father (Heb. 1:3). A representation of something is not the same thing as that ‘something.’  See Hebrews 1:3

Matt. 3:17
“and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.’”
Father speaking about the Son
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Matt. 10:40
“He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

To be sent implies that Jesus must have existed prior to the action of being sent. This is consistent with John 17:5, where Jesus claimed pre-existence with God the Father. This implies two persons: The sender and the one sent. Both existed together before the incarnation.

The Father sent the Son – yet in oneness, they are the same person. The Son sent the disciples – yet in oneness, they are different persons. In the latter case, they are correct that Jesus is a separate person from the disciples. After all, one person (Jesus) sending another person (the disciples) shows the distinction between the persons. But in oneness, the logic is abandoned when the person of the Father sends the person of the Son. After all, they say that the same person. But the Father speaks to the son (Matt. 3:17; John 12:27–28), which designates a plurality of persons. Jesus has a different will than the Father (Luke 22:42), which designates the plurality persons. The evidence shows that they are different persons, no matter what oneness adherents say.

Matt. 11:25
“At that time Jesus said, ‘I praise You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that You have hidden these things from the wise and intelligent and have revealed them to infants.’
Jesus prays to the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Matt. 11:25
“At that time Jesus said, ‘I praise You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that You have hidden these things from the wise and intelligent and have revealed them to infants.’
Jesus praises the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Matt. 11:27
“All things have been handed over to Me by My Father; and no one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.”
The Father hands all things to Jesus
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Matt. 11:27
“All things have been handed over to Me by My Father; and no one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.”
The Son reveals the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Matt. 16:17
“And Jesus said to him, ‘Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.’”
The Father reveals truth to Simon
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Matt. 24:36
“But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.”
The Father alone knows
Distinction of knowledge
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If Jesus and the Father are the same person, then why does Jesus not know something the Father does?

If the oneness adherent says that it was the human nature that did not know, then they are saying that Jesus is really two persons because they are dividing up the natures. But that would mean that the single person of Jesus did not possess both attributes of humanity and divinity. That is the heresy of Nestorianism.

Matt. 28:19
“Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,”
Baptize in the Name of the three
No distinction of action
Father, Son, & Holy Spirit
Non-specific

Mark 8:38
“For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”
Return of Christ
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Mark 13:32
“But of that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.”
The Father alone knows
Distinction of knowledge
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

See note on Matt. 24:36

Luke 2:49
“And He said to them, ‘Why is it that you were looking for Me? Did you not know that I had to be in My Father’s house?”
Jesus recognized God as Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Luke 9:26
“For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when He comes in His glory, and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.”
Jesus returns in the glory of the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If Jesus is the same person as the Father, then why does he return in the glory of the Father and not his own glory?

Luke 10:22
“All things have been handed over to Me by My Father, and no one knows who the Son is except the Father, and who the Father is except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.”
The Son reveals the Father.
The Father and the Son know each other
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Luke 22:42
“saying, ‘Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done.’
Jesus prayed to the Father
Separate wills
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Who is praying to who?

Is it Jesus praying to the Father? Yes. The text says so.

If Jesus is the Father, then He is praying to Himself. Nothing in scripture states that God prays to Himself. (See the Table examining the phrases pray to, prayed to, and prays to) Who is the “Me” in Luke 22:42? It is Jesus. Is it the whole person of Jesus?

YES. If yes, then the person of Jesus is speaking about someone else besides Himself: The Father. This means there are two persons. If the oneness says it is just an expression, the way someone speaks to himself, then show that it is the case from scripture – which never occurs (See the Table examining the phrases pray to, prayed to, and prays to). Oneness should not impose a non-biblical assertion into the text.

NO: Then it must be that the human nature that is praying to the divine nature. But that means two persons: one human and one divine. This is because one person prays to another.If the person of Jesus is also the same person of the Father, then why do they have different wills? Remember, Jesus has two distinct natures: divine and human. Therefore, the one person of Christ has the attributes of both divine and human natures (communicatio idiomatum) – as one person! If Jesus the person has a different well than someone else (the Father), then they are different persons.

If the oneness says that it was the human nature speaking to the divine nature, then this implies that the human person was talking to the divine person. After all, to have a will and to speak are attributes of personhood. Therefore, oneness would be implying that when the Son speaks to the Father and designates different wills. This means they are different persons and is the heresy of Nestorianism.

Luke 23:34
“But Jesus was saying, ‘Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.’ And they cast lots, dividing up His garments among themselves.”
Jesus prayed to the Father
Jesus asking of the Father
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Luke 23:46
“And Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, said, ‘Father, INTO YOUR HANDS I COMMIT MY SPIRIT.’ Having said this, He breathed His last.”
Jesus committed Himself to the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If Jesus is the Father then how does he commit his own spirit to the Father – which would be his own spirit? This would make no sense. If it is the human nature speaking to the divine nature, then that destroys the single personhood of Christ who is by definition one person with two distinct natures, not two persons. To say that the human nature is speaking to the divine nature is to imply separate two persons. But that denies the hypostatic union where Jesus is one person with two natures. It would also imply Nestorianism which states that in the one body of Christ are two persons: the divine person in the human person.

John 3:35
“The Father loves the Son and has given all things into His hand.”
The Father loves Jesus
The Father loving Jesus
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 4:21
Jesus said to her, ‘Woman, believe Me, an hour is coming when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father.’
Worship the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Non-Specific

John 5:19
“Therefore Jesus answered and was saying to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, unless it is something He sees the Father doing; for whatever the Father does, these things the Son also does in like manner.’
Jesus can only do what He sees the Father do
The action of one in relation to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If Jesus is the same person as the Father, then why does He observe the Father? Is he observing himself or is there a separation of persons where the person of the human flesh is observing the person of the divine Father?

John 5:20
“For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself is doing; and the Father will show Him greater works than these, so that you will marvel.”
The Father loves the Son
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 5:21
“For just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom He wishes.”
The Father and Son give life
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Non-Specific

John 5:22
“For not even the Father judges anyone, but He has given all judgment to the Son,”
Father gave all judgment to the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 5:23
“so that all will honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him.”
Same honor to Jesus and the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 5:23
“so that all will honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 5:26
“For just as the Father has life in Himself, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in Himself.”
The Father gave life to the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Is this in reference to the human nature? Then “The Son” is the human nature of Jesus.

John 5:43
“I have come in My Father’s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, you will receive him.
Jesus came in the Father’s name
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 6:27
“Do not work for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you, for on Him the Father, God, has set His seal.”
The Father set His seal on Jesus.
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 6:32
Jesus then said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, it is not Moses who has given you the bread out of heaven, but it is My Father who gives you the true bread out of heaven.’”
The Father of Jesus
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 6:37
“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out.
The Father gives the elect to the Son
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 6:38
“For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 6:39
“This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 6:40
“For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day.”
Will of the Father for those who believe in Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Question: Who is the “him”?  It is Jesus. Is it the person of Jesus?

YES.  If yes, then the person of Jesus is speaking about someone else besides Himself: The Father.  This means there are two persons.

If the oneness says it is just an expression, the way someone speaks to himself, then show that it is the case from scripture. Don’t impose a non-biblical assertion into the text.

NO: Then it must be that the human nature that is praying to the divine nature. But that means two persons:  one human and one divine.  This is because one person prays to another. Nothing in scripture states that God prays to Himself.

John 6:46
“Not that anyone has seen the Father, except the One who is from God; He has seen the Father.”
Only Jesus has seen the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 8:19
“So they were saying to Him, ‘Where is Your Father?’ Jesus answered, ‘You know neither Me nor My Father; if you knew Me, you would know My Father also.’
Some don’t know Jesus or the Father
Jesus distinguishes himself from the Father.
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 8:28
“So Jesus said, “When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and I do nothing on My own initiative, but I speak these things as the Father taught Me.”
The Father taught Jesus
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If Jesus is the Father, then how is it the Father teaches Jesus anything?  Is it because Jesus doesn’t know? If that is the case, then how does the person of Jesus not know what the person of the Father knows?

John 8:42
“Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and have come from God, for I have not even come on My own initiative, but He sent Me.”
Jesus proceeded from the Father
The action of one from another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 8:42
“Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and have come from God, for I have not even come on My own initiative, but He sent Me.”
The Father sent Jesus
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 8:49
Jesus answered, ‘I do not have a demon; but I honor My Father, and you dishonor Me.’”
Jesus honors the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 8:54
“Jesus answered, ‘If I glorify Myself, My glory is nothing; it is My Father who glorifies Me, of whom you say, ‘He is our God’.”
The Father glorifies Jesus
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 10:15
“even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.”
The Father and the Son know each other
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 10:25
Jesus answered them, ‘I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify of Me.’”
Jesus does works in the Father’s name
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 10:30
I and the Father are one.”
Jesus recognizes the identical nature of the Father and Him
The action of one in relation to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

This statement of Jesus reflects on the Shema of Deut. 6:4.  In Deut. 6:4, the Hebrew word for “one” is אֶחָד ʾechad.’ It can mean first, one, another, other, one among others, etc. It is used as “few days” (Gen. 27:44), “one people” (Gen. 24:22), “one man” (Gen. 42:13), “one gold pan” (Num. 7:38), “a certain man” (1 Sam. 1:1), “other cherub” (2 Chron. 3:12), etc. It has a quality that can include the composition of parts. 2) יָחִיד yachiyd “יָחִיד adjective and substantive only, only one, solitary.” (https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3173.htm). It is used of “only son” (Gen. 22:2; Prov. 4:3; Zech. 12:10), “only child” (Judges 11:34).

John 10:32
Jesus answered them, “I showed you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you stoning Me?”
Jesus’ works are from the Father
The action of one to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 10:36
“do you say of Him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?”
The Father sanctified the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 10:36
“If I do not do the works of My Father, do not believe Me;”
Jesus does the works of the Father
The action of one from another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 11:41
“So they removed the stone. Then Jesus raised His eyes, and said, Father, I thank You that You have heard Me.’”
The Father hears Jesus
The action of one from another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 12:27–28
“Now My soul has become troubled; and what shall I say, ‘Father, save Me from this hour’? But for this purpose I came to this hour. 28 Father, glorify Your name.’ Then a voice came out of heaven: ‘I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.’”
Jesus prayed to the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Attributes of personhood include recognizing one’s self (I, me, mine) as well as others (you, yours, they).

Jesus, the person, prays to the Father who responds and uses the word “I” in regard to Himself as an answer to Jesus’ prayer.

Question: Is the “I” in “I have both glorified it” the person of Jesus or is it the person of the Father? (Remember, the attributes of personhood)

Jesus: If it is Jesus who answered himself when Jesus prayed to the Father, then this implies one person. But according to the attributes of personhood, one person is speaking to another person. So, one person doesn’t work. Furthermore, it would mean that the human nature is praying to the divine nature (as oneness routinely state). But that means two persons since on nature is performing the action of praying to another. This is because one person prays to another.  (See the article on “PRAYING TO”)

Father: If it is the Father who answered, and this implies two persons because the person of the Father, is responding to the person of Jesus.

So, the person of the Son was praying to the Father who answered as would a person. There is the distinction of two simultaneous persons and oneness is refuted.

John 12:44
“And Jesus cried out and said, ‘He who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me.’
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 12:45
“He who sees Me sees the One who sent Me.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 12:49
“For I did not speak on My own initiative, but the Father Himself who sent Me has given Me a commandment as to what to say and what to speak.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 12:50
“I know that His commandment is eternal life; therefore the things I speak, I speak just as the Father has told Me.
The Father tells Jesus what to speak
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 13:1
“Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour had come that He would depart out of this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.”
Jesus will depart and go to the Father
The action of one in relation to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Did Jesus depart to be with himself?  How does anyone depart to be with himself, especially when he is speaking to someone else in a different location the Father who is in heaven (Matt. 6:9)?

If it is the case that the human nature of Jesus is departing to be with the Father, then it is the human nature that is separate from the divine nature that is departing to be with the Father (Himself). But that would mean that the human nature is in heaven with the Father. The human nature must have attributes of personhood – or it isn’t human. So, that would mean there is the person of the human nature in heaven with the divine nature, the Father. This would mean there are two persons in heaven, a divine person and a human person.

John 13:3
Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come forth from God and was going back to God,”
Jesus will return to the Father
The action of one in relation to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus was going back to the Father. This means he was with the Father beforehand. But if a oneness person says it’s the divine nature indwelling the human body of Christ is going back to the Father then that would mean that the divine nature was going back to itself. But that makes no sense. If the oneness person says the human nature is speaking and is going back to the Father, then that must mean that the human nature existed with the Father before the incarnation. But that doesn’t make sense either.

John 13:20
“Truly, truly, I say to you, he who receives whomever I send receives Me; and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 14:1
“Do not let your heart be troubled; believe in God, believe also in Me.”
Believe in God and Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus said to believe in God and himself. Was Jesus a person? Yes, then he is telling people to believe in the person of God and the person of himself. But, if the oneness person says that it is the divine nature speaking, then then the divine nature is saying to believe in God and himself. But such language demonstrates the distinction of persons. This is a problem for oneness.

If the oneness person states that the human nature was speaking here and not the divine nature, then the human nature is speaking as a person. But why then would the human nature raise itself to an equal level of belief with that of God?

John 14:6
Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me.”
Access to the Father, only through Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Question: If Jesus is the Father, why does Jesus speak about access to someone other than himself?

If Jesus is the Father, why didn’t he say no one comes to me but through me? Why not say that He is the only way to Himself?If it is the human nature that is speaking about the divine nature of the Father, then that would mean the human nature of Jesus is the way to God the Father. But, this is equivalent to stating that a mere man, with one nature, is the way to God. This would negate the hypostatic union which teaches that Jesus is a single person has two distinct natures.If it is the whole person of Jesus speaking, then the person of Jesus would be speaking about someone else, the Father. But that implies two persons.

John 14:7
“If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; from now on you know Him, and have seen Him.”
To know Jesus is to know the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 14:9
Jesus said to him, ‘Have I been so long with you, and yet you have not come to know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?
To see Jesus is the see the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
One person

Oneness advocates use this verse as proof that the Father and the Son are the same person since Jesus says to see Him is to see the Father. But this ignores the numerous accounts of them speaking to each other (Luke 22:42; John 12:50) and knowing each other (John 10:15), which is exactly what designates personhood.  So, for them to focus on this one verse to prove their position means they ignore the others. They submit many verses to one – due to their presuppositions.

Question: But if Jesus is the Father and Jesus says that no one’s ever seen the Father (John 6:46), then how is it true that to see Jesus is to see the Father? If the oneness person says the divine nature is hidden in the body of Christ, so that it cannot be seen, then it would not be the case that to see Jesus is to see the Father. It would have to be that to see Jesus is to see the representation of the Father. Jesus is the “exact  representation of His [the Father] nature.” Therefore, Jesus can say that to see him is to see the Father. But, would imply two person: Jesus and the Father. Again, Heb. 1:3 says that Jesus is the “exact representation [χαρακτήρ, charaktḗr ] of His nature.” This means that Jesus is not the Father. Instead, he is a representation of the Father. This distinction here implies two persons. Lexicon:

“χαρακτήρ, ῆρος m: a representation as an exact reproduction of a particular form or structure—‘exact representation.’ ὃς ὢν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ ‘who is the reflection of his glory and the exact representation of his being’ He 1:3.” (Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996, underline added)

John 14:10-11
“Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father is in Me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on My own initiative, but the Father abiding in Me does His works. 11 “Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me; otherwise believe because of the works themselves.”

 

Jesus and the Father are in each other
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus has knowledge of the Father because the Father is abiding in him (v. 10). According to the doctrine of the perichoresis, the three persons mutually indwell each other. They share the same essence and are the one being who is God (Divine Simplicity). The person of Jesus, who is the word in flesh (John 1:1, 14), was revealing his own deity in relationship with the Father. They are “in each other” which designates reciprocity between two persons.

Question: If Jesus is the same person as the Father, then how can Jesus and the Father be in each other? After all, Jesus speaks as though they are distinct. If the oneness person says that Jesus is speaking as a single person with two distinct natures (hypostatic union), then Jesus, the person, is speaking about someone else, the Father ( who is in heaven, Matt. 6:9). This implies two distinct persons.

Since Jesus says, “I am in the Father,” that cannot be that human nature speaking since the human nature is not in the Father. Therefore, according to Oneness, it could be the divine nature speaking. That would mean then that the divine nature, which is the Father, is saying that he is in the Father. But this makes no sense.

Question: How could one divine nature that is Jesus’s divine nature, speak about being in the Father who is really himself?

John 14:16
I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may be with you forever.”
Jesus asks the Father to give the Helper
The action of one toward another
Jesus, the Father, and the Holy Spirit
Three persons

The person of Jesus speaks about what the Father will do: give another Helper. Furthermore, it is so that He, the Helper, can be with disciples forever. In this verse, we see the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Jesus is making a request to someone else, the Father. He is not asking himself to send himself. Instead, He is asking the Father to send “another helper,” namely, the Holy Spirit. In this verse, we see support for the Trinity.

John 14:21
“He who has My commandments and keeps them is the one who loves Me; and he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will disclose Myself to him.”
The Father and the Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 14:23
Jesus answered and said to him, ‘If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our abode with him.’
The Father and the Son will indwell.
The action of one with another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus identifies himself as an object of love. Jesus says the Father will love those who love Him. Both will make their abode in the one who loves Christ.

Questions: 1) If Jesus and the Father are the same person, why does Jesus say “we”?  2) If God is one person, then why does Jesus speak in the plural about himself and the Father?

John 14:24
“He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine, but the Father’s who sent Me.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 14:28
“You heard that I said to you, ‘I go away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved Me, you would have rejoiced because I go to the Father, for the Father is greater than I.”
Jesus will depart and go to the Father
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 16:28
I came forth from the Father and have come into the world; I am leaving the world again and going to the Father.”
Jesus cam from the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 17:1
Jesus spoke these things; and lifting up His eyes to heaven, He said, ‘Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son, that the Son may glorify You,’”
Jesus prayed to the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 17:3
“This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

John 17:5
“Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was.”
Jesus had glory with the Father before the creation

Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus said that he had existed with God the Father and shared glory with him before the world existed.

Questions: 1) If Jesus is the person with two natures, how do Oneness people understand that Jesus existed with the Father before creation? 2) Did Jesus exist with himself?

John 17:6
I have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world; they were Yours and You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word.”
Jesus manifested the Father’s name
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 18:11
“So Jesus said to Peter, ‘Put the sword into the sheath; the cup which the Father has given Me, shall I not drink it?’”
The Father has something for Jesus to do
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

John 20:17
“Jesus said to her, ‘Stop clinging to Me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to My brethren and say to them, ‘I ascend to My Father and your Father, and My God and your God.’
Jesus ascending to the Father
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus was going to ascend to the Father who He called His God. If Jesus is the Father then it would mean that Jesus was ascending to Himself. But, we know that Jesus was a person who had two distinct natures: divine and human. How does the oneness person explain the incongruity of Jesus, who is supposed to be the Father, ascending into heaven to be with Himself who is the Father? It makes no sense.

If, however, the oneness person says that it was the human nature that was speaking about the divine nature, then it would mean that the physical, human nature of Jesus ascended into heaven. This is consistent with Acts 1:9-11, where Jesus physically ascended into heaven and is prophesied to return in the same way. But this means that Jesus must still be a person in heaven, a person with two natures: divine and human. If Jesus is not the person with two natures, then he is no longer Jesus. Because, by definition, Jesus has two distinct natures, God and man. But, according to oneness, this would mean that God is in heaven with himself. This makes no sense.

Questions: 1) How does the oneness person explain the incongruity of Jesus, who is supposed to be the Father, ascending into heaven to be with Himself who is the Father?  2) according to acts 1:9-11, Jesus will return in the same way he ascended into heaven, physically. Does the oneness person deny that Jesus retains his personhood in heaven and presently has two distinct natures: divine and human?  3) Does the oneness person affirm that Jesus retained his two natures and is presently in heaven?  If so, then the person of Jesus who is divine is with the person of God the Father. That would mean to simultaneous persons who are God and this
refutes oneness.

John 20:21
“So Jesus said to them again, ‘Peace be with you; as the Father has sent Me, I also send you.’”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

Acts 5:30
“The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross.”
God raised Jesus
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Acts 2:36
“Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ—this Jesus whom you crucified.”
God made Jesus both Lord and Christ
The action of one to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Acts 7:56
“and he said, ‘Behold, I see the heavens opened up and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.’”

 

Jesus standing at the right hand of the Father.
The action of one to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

While Stephen was being stoned, he had a vision of Jesus who was standing at the right hand of God. Granted that this is a vision, and sometimes visions are not always exact. But, what God granted Stephen to see was a distinction between Jesus, the Son of Man, and God the Father.

Question: If Jesus is the same person as the Father, then how could he be standing at the right hand of himself?

If the oneness person says that it’s the human part of Jesus standing next to himself who is the father, then we must ask if Jesus is still a person. After all, Jesus exhibited the attributes of personhood. But by definition, Jesus has two distinct natures: divine and human.

Question: Is the incarnated divine nature standing next to the non-incarnated divine nature?

Rom. 1:7
“to all who are beloved of God in Rome, called as saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of grace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Rom. 6:4
“Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.”
God raised Jesus
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Rom. 15:6
“so that with one accord you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.”
Father of Jesus
Jesus and the Father are glorified
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Rom. 16:27
“to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be the glory forever. Amen.”
Glory for God through Jesus

Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If God is one person, then the “only wise God” is that one person. But, it also says “through Jesus.” TO one thing THROUGH another shows the distinction of persons.

1 Cor. 1:3
“Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of grace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 Cor. 8:6
“yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.”
One God and one Lord
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

If there is only one God who is the Father, and Jesus speaks to the Father, then they are distinct. But, this might be interpreted to say that Jesus is not God. After all, if there is only one God, Jesus, who speaks of the Father, then that shows that they are distinct.

The context is dealing with things sacrificed to idols (v.4). Paul then mentions that there are many so-called gods and many lords (v. 5). This sets up v. 6, where Paul says there is only one God the Father from whom are all things and one Lord Jesus by whom are all things. Note that it does not say there is only one God, the Father. But that there is “one God the Father from whom [ἐξ οὗ] are all things” (v. 6). He also says, “one Lord, Jesus Christ, by [διά οὗ] whom are all things.” “From whom are all things” modifies “one God, the Father,” who is the ultimate source of all things.

Paul is saying that all things are from God the Father – who is the first person of the Trinity. Furthermore, He is called Father in relation to Jesus, the Son, the second person of the Trinity. Verse 6 also says that there is “one Lord, Jesus Christ by whom are all things.” This designates the pre-existence of the Son in relation to the Father. If the oneness position is true, then the Father and the Son are NOT distinct before creation. Yet this verse implies that they are distinct since both are referenced as before the creation yet with distinction in prepositions (from, by). The “from whom” and “by whom” show distinction: from one and by another. It is the Father from whom (source) are all things, and the Son by whom (agency) are all things. The pre-incarnate Christ is the intermediate agent in creation, as Col. 1:15-17 demonstrates. This shows the difference in functions, hence, the economic trinity.

Questions: 1) Was God the Father, eternally the Father?  If yes: Then how is He eternally the Father without a son? If no: Then why do the Oneness deny the clear teaching of references to God the Father in relation to the Son (Matt. 3:17; 11:27; John 6:37, etc.)

2 Cor. 1:2
“Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Grace and peace from both God and Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 Cor. 1:3
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort,”
Blessed by the Father and Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 Cor. 11:31
“The God and Father of the Lord Jesus, He who is blessed forever, knows that I am not lying.”
God and Father of the Lord Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 Cor. 13:14
The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with you all.”
God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit
No distinction of action
God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit
Three persons

Gal. 1:1
“Paul, an apostle (not sent from men nor through the agency of man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead),”
Paul sent from both Jesus and the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Gal. 1:1
“Paul, an apostle (not sent from men nor through the agency of man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead),”
The Father raised Jesus from the dead
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Gal. 1:3
“Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,”
Equality of peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Gal. 4:6
“Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!”
The Father sent the Spirit of the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons
Three persons?

Eph. 1:2
“Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Eph. 1:3
“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,”
Blessed by God the Father and the Lord Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Eph. 1:17
“that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him.”
The Father is the God of Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Eph. 5:20
“always giving thanks for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God, even the Father.”
Giving thanks through Jesus to God
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Eph. 6:23
“Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Phil. 1:2
“Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of grace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Phil. 2:11
“and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”
Confess Jesus is Lord to the glory of the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Col. 1:2
“To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ who are at Colossae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father.”
Equality of grace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Col. 1:3
“We give thanks to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you,”
The Father of Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Col. 3:17
“Whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks through Him to God the Father.”
Do things in the name of Jesus to the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 Thess. 1:1
“Paul and Silvanus and Timothy, to the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace.”
Salutation to the Church in the Father and Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 Thess. 1:3
“constantly bearing in mind your work of faith and labor of love and steadfastness of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ in the presence of our God and Father,”
Jesus is in the presence of the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus is in the presence of God the Father. This means that the person of Christ is with the person of the Father. It cannot be that Jesus if he is the Father, is in the presence of Himself when one is spoken of in relation to the other. It would make no sense.

Lord
Jesus
Christ
in
our
God
and
Father

τοῦ κυρίου
Ἰησοῦ
Χριστοῦ
ἔμπροσθεν
ἡμῶν
τοῦ θεοῦ
καὶ
πατρὸς

tou kurio
Iasou
Kristou
emprosthen
humon
tou theou
kai
patros


ἔμπροσθεν, emprosthen
= “a position in front of an object, whether animate or inanimate, which is regarded as having a spatial orientation of front and back—‘in front of, before.” (Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996.)
Different Bible Translations

ASV, Darby, WEB, Wycliffe,  – “Jesus Christ, before our God and Father.”
CEB, LEB, NASB, Young’s Literal – Jesus Christ in the presence of our God and Father.”
KJV, NKJV, Jesus Christ, in the sight of God and our Father

1 Thess. 3:11
“Now may our God and Father Himself and Jesus our Lord direct our way to you.”
God the Father and Jesus the Lord
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 Thess. 3:13
“so that He may establish your hearts without blame in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His saints.”
God the Father and Jesus the Lord
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 Thess. 1:1
“Paul and Silvanus and Timothy, to the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ:”
God the Father and Jesus the Lord
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 Thess. 1:2
Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of grace/peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 Thess. 2:16
“Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us eternal comfort and good hope by grace,”
God the Father and Jesus the Lord
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 Tim. 1:2
“To Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.”
Equality of grace/peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 Tim. 2:5
“For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.”
Jesus is the only mediator to God
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jesus is speaking as a man under the law (Galatians 4:4). Therefore, He was required to believe in and serve the one true God, the God of Israel (Exodus 20:2-3). Here, the representation of the God of Israel is God the Father because God the word, which was with God and was God, had already become flesh as Jesus (John 1:1, 14).  Jesus was not calling himself God the father. This is because Jesus distinguishes himself from God the Father in many places (Matt. 11:25; Luke 22:42; 23:34; 46; John 12:27–28; 17:1-5).

John 5:44, “How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and you do not seek the glory that is from the only God?”
1 Corinthians 8:6, “yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.”
Ephesians 4:6, “one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.”
1 Timothy 2:5, “For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,”

1 Tim. 6:16
“I charge you in the presence of God, who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate,”
The presence of both God and Jesus
No distinction of action
God and Jesus
Two persons

2 Tim. 1:2
“To Timothy, my beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.”
Equality of grace/peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
God and Jesus
Two persons

Titus 1:4
“To Titus, my true child in a common faith: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.”
Equality of grace/peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
The Father and Jesus
Two persons

Heb. 1:2
“[God] in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.”
God has spoken in the Son
The action of one through another
God and the Son
Two persons

Heb. 1:2
“[God] in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.”
God appointed Jesus as heir
The action of one on another
God and the Son
Two persons

Heb. 1:3
“And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,”
Jesus is the exact representation of God
The action of one in relation to another
God and the Son
Two persons

Oneness advocates use this verse as proof that the Father and the Son are the same person since Jesus says to see Him is to see the Father. But this ignores the numerous accounts of them speaking to each other (Luke 22:42; John 12:50) and knowing each other (John 10:15), which is exactly what designates personhood. So, for them to focus on this one verse to prove their position means they ignore the others.

Question: But if Jesus is the Father and Jesus says that no one has ever seen the Father (John 6:46), then how is it true that to see Jesus is to see the Father? If the oneness person says the divine nature is hidden in the body of Christ so that it cannot be seen, then it would not be the case that to see Jesus is to see the Father. It would have to be that to see Jesus is to see the representation of the Father. Jesus is the “exact representation of His [the Father] nature.” Therefore, Jesus can say that to see him is to see the Father. But, would imply two person: Jesus and the Father.

Again, Heb. 1:3 says that Jesus is the “exact representation [χαρακτήρ, charaktḗr] of His nature.” This means that Jesus is not the Father. Instead, he is a representation of the Father. This distinction here implies two persons.

Representation, χαρακτήρ charaktḗr,
1. “χαρακτήρ, ῆρος m: a representation as an exact reproduction of a particular form or structure—‘exact representation.’ ὃς ὢν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ ‘who is the reflection of his glory and the exact representation of his being’ He 1:3.” (Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996.)“… in Heb. 1:3 where it is translated “express image,” referring to Jesus Christ. Here He is described as the charaktḗr tḗs hupostáseōs autoú (tḗs [3588], the [gen. fem.]; hupostáseōs [5287], essence [gen.]; autoú [846], he [gen. masc.]), “the exact image of His [God’s] essence” (a.t.). Whatever the divine essence is, Jesus is said to be its perfect expression.” (Zodhiates, Spiros. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2000.)“In the N.T. it is used metaphorically in Heb. 1:3, of the Son of God as “the very image (marg., ‘the impress’) of His substance,” R.V. The phrase expresses the fact that the Son “is both personally distinct from, and yet literally equal to, Him of whose essence He is the adequate imprint.” (Vine, W.E., and F.F. Bruce. Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Old Tappan NJ: Revell, 1981.)

Nature
1. The word for “nature” is ὑπόστασις hupóstasis. It occurs five times in the New Testament: 2 Cor. 9:4; 11:17; Hebrews 1:3; 3:14; 11:1.
hupostasis: “In general, that which underlies the apparent, hence, reality, essence, substance; that which is the basis of something, hence, assurance guarantee, confidence.” (Zodhiates, Spiros. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2000.)
hupostasis: “lit., a standing under, support (hupo, under, histēmi, to stand), hence, an “assurance,” is so rendered in Heb. 11:1, R.V., for A.V., “substance.” (Vine, W.E., and F.F. Bruce. Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Old Tappan NJ: Revell, 1981.)

The five verses where ὑπόστασις hupóstasis occurs

2 Cor. 9:4, “otherwise if any Macedonians come with me and find you unprepared, we—not to speak of you—will be put to shame by this confidence.
2 Cor. 11:17, “What I am saying, I am not saying as the Lord would, but as in foolishness, in this confidence of boasting.”
Heb. 1:3, “And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,”
Heb. 3:14, “For we have become partakers of Christ, if we hold fast the beginning of our assurance firm until the end,”
Hebrews 11:1, “1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.”

Heb. 1:5
“the angels did He ever say, ‘YOU ARE MY SON, TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU’? And again, ‘I WILL BE A FATHER TO HIM AND HE SHALL BE A SON TO ME’?”
Father says that Jesus is the Son
The action of one in relation to another
Father and Son
Two persons

Heb. 1:6
 And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says, “AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP HIM.”
God tells the angels to worship Jesus, the firstborn
The action of one in relation to another
Father and Son
Two persons

Heb. 1:8
 But of the Son, He says, “YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS FOREVER AND EVER, AND THE RIGHTEOUS SCEPTER IS THE SCEPTER OF HIS KINGDOM.
The Father calls the Son, God
The action of one toward another
Father and Son
Two persons

Philm 3
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Equality of grace/peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Father and Son
Two persons

1 Pet. 1:2
“according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure.”
God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit
No distinction of action
The Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit
Three persons

1 Pet. 1:3
“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,”
God the Father and Jesus the Lord
No distinction of action
Father and Jesus
Two persons

2 Pet. 1:17
“For when He received honor and glory from God the Father, such an utterance as this was made to Him by the Majestic Glory, “This is My beloved Son with whom I am well-pleased”
Father speaking about the Son
The action of one toward another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 John 1:3
“what we have seen and heard we proclaim to you also, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ.”
Our fellowship is with the Father and the Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 John 2:1
“My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.”
Our advocate with the Father is Jesus
The action of one in relation to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 John 2:22
“Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, the one who denies the Father and the Son.”
Denying the Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 John 2:23
“Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father; the one who confesses the Son has the Father also.”
Affirming the Father and the Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 John 2:24
“As for you, let that abide in you which you heard from the beginning. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, you also will abide in the Son and in the Father.”
We abide in the Father and the Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

1 John 4:14
“We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son to be the Savior of the world.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

1 John 5:1
“Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God, and whoever loves the Father loves the child born of Him.”
The Father and the Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 John 3
“Grace, mercy, and peace will be with us, from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love.”
Equality of grace/peace between Father and Son
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

2 John 9
“Anyone who goes too far and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God; the one who abides in the teaching, he has both the Father and the Son.”
He who abides in the teaching of Christ has the Father
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Jude 1
“Jude, a bond-servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to those who are the called, beloved in God the Father, and kept for Jesus Christ:”
The Father and Jesus
No distinction of action
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Rev. 1:1
“The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show to His bond-servants, the things which must soon take place; and He sent and communicated it by His angel to His bond-servant John.”
The Father sent the Son
The action of one on another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

Regarding the Father sending the Son, see the note on Matt 10:40.

Rev. 3:21
‘He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne.”
Jesus sits with the Father
The action of one in relation to another
Jesus and the Father
Two persons

The post Table comparison of the Father and Jesus, the Son appeared first on Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry.

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